Never turn your violin’s volume to 11. Pluck here for the explanation.
B – Incorrect: …consequence from is incorrect. The correct idiom is consequence of.
C – Incorrect: The phrase a consequence which resulted is redundant.
D, E – Incorrect: The participial modifier starting with damaged relates illogically to the subject of the clause beginning A common problem…. There are two things that the adjectival participle damaged might modify grammatically: problem and hearing loss. Damaged does a poor job of modifying either.
A – Correct: …consequence of is the correct idiom.